The Paris Métro‘s art nouveau entrances and art deco candelabras are iconic. They are almost as readily recognizable as the Eiffel Tower, the Arc de Triomphe or the Louvre. The smell of the subway is almost equally iconic, but fortunately not as easily expressed via the internet.
A French friend explained to us that for something to be popular in France, it must be beautiful, even if it means sacrificing function. A lot of Paris’ beauty and charm lies in the elegance of everyday life. These subway signs are a perfect manifestation of this.
These “edicule” entrances were designed by the architect, Hector Guimard in 1899. Some conservative Parisians considered them too fanciful. Some saw the wrought-iron stems clutching glowing reddish balls, pistils and stamens of flowers, as suggestive. Eventually, acceptance grew. Nevertheless, they didn’t have the appreciation they enjoy today. Many of the signs were torn down over the years, in the name of modernization. Eventually, Paris recognized their beauty, value and symbolic power. In the late 70’s the remaining ones were declared historic landmarks. At the end of the century, they restored the remaining art nouveau Metro entrances.
Cool huh? We aren’t the only ones who think so. The New York Modern Art Museum bought the old wrought-iron railings from a Metro entrance. They are on display as a pioneering, beautiful example of art nouveau.
Many “old towns” are (almost completely) car free. Many towns, use a system of passes and barriers to ensure that the streets remain traffic free while allowing residents parking, taxis access and permitting deliveries.
Many streets in city centers are reserved for local business people, residents, city buses, or pedestrians. To enforce this the entry to the street is always marked as such, in the local language and with standard signs, and is often blocked by a couple of 8″ diameter steel posts rising up from the road. Those with permits have a swipe card which lowers the posts momentarily so they can drive through. If you try to sneak through right after someone goes in you might hear a sort of crunching sound as the posts come up under your car. This will be embarrassing and expensive.
Some of the car-free towns we have visited include:
Zermatt (which uses electric vehicles) is car free to prevent air pollution which could obscure the town’s view of the Matterhorn.
Saas-Fee decided exclude most motor vehicles during the construction of the road from Saas Grund in 1951.
To encourage walking, biking and the use of public transport, many European cities make it hard (and/or costly) to park.
limit the amount of parking spaces
implement or increase parking fees
Fees paid for parking are sometimes used to encourage non-car transportation.
Eliminating parking spaces in Copenhagen has made room for high-quality pedestrian districts and bike paths, while street space once used by cars has likewise been repurposed in Paris for bike sharing and tramways.