Snowmaking creates snow by dispersing water and air-under-pressure into freezing ambient air. They can even choose whether to make it into light powder or a wet base snow (which lasts better at higher temperatures) by regulating the water content of man made snow. Still, the lower the temperature, the better for snowmaking. It usually needs to be below 25 degrees fahrenheit (-3.89 Celsius) for it to work, which is part of the reason it is done at night. The lower the humidity, the higher the temperature can be. Aaah… the miracles of modern science….
We’ve done our fair share of traveling in France lately. We’ve noticed virtually every town there has monuments to local citizens who died in service of their country. The lists of names, often including those deported and killed locally, are a touching remembrance.
Veterans Day annually falls on November 11, but to make it a bank holiday/federal holiday it is observed on Monday, November 12 in the United States . Why November 11? On November 11, 1918, the armistice ending World War I was signed. On that day, hostilities between the Allied countries and Germany officially ended. Germany
Technical innovations like the machine gun, poison gas, tanks, and aircraft appeared in battle for the first time in World War I. Scientific advances and industrialization joined to create enormous death tolls. Germany lost 1,800,000; the Soviet Union lost 1,700,000; France lost 1,385,000; Austria lost 1,200,000; Great Britain lost 947,000. While that may seem small in comparison to some of the other countries listed, about 1/3 of Great Britain’s male population died in The Great War! Extrapolating, it’s difficult to imagine the devastating effects on experienced by some of the other countries listed, especially those who had the war fought on their soil.
Although we haven’t seen quite as many such monuments in Germany, we did see a few there too. We came across the one below in Bad Munster, near Bad Kreuznach in Germany.
After WWII, the holiday was expanded to remember those who served in that war. In the US, we’ve had a significant number of wars over the last century Veterans Day honors and thanks veterans for their service to their country.
War requires sacrifices and troops bear more of them than most. It is important to remember those sacrifices and the people who made them. War isn’t a triviality. It’s important to remember that it carries with it a human cost. Whether you call it Armistice Day or Veterans Day, it is a time to remember the price paid, the sacrifices of those that have served and honor those that did.
In the US, we have a strong tradition of property rights. In theory, every man (and woman) is the king (or queen) of his castle (or trailer) and can do what they want with their land, including barring others from trespassing. Other countries, like Switzerland, have a different take. There, landowners are regarded more as stewards of the people’s land. As a result, Switzerland’s hiking trails (known as Wanderweg, Tourisme Pédestre, and Sentiero Escursionistic in German, French and Italian respectively), cross through people’s property. With around 60,000 km/37,282 miles of in such a small country, how could they not?
Yellow diamonds mark hiking routes (some cultural trails, old pilgrims’ roads, etc. have brown signposts). When we first arrived in Switzerland, we weren’t sure whether we would get in trouble for following the trails. They lead through people’s pastures, woods and yards. We even followed one right through the middle of someone’s barn!
I know, for an American who grows up with “get off my land,” this is a hard concept to wrap your head around. Farmers receive significant benefits from the government so they don’t seem to mind to much. If the Swiss government made me a steward of the land and defrayed the cost of my insanely beautiful mountain views, I wouldn’t mind hikers either… as long as they didn’t let my cows loose.
We’ve never seen so many types of cow barriers – and he grew up on a farm! Amazed by the variety, I started taking pictures of them. Who knew there were so many different ways to keep cows in?
Note the little ladder for people to walk over on the right side in the photo above. Genius. Not that it couldn’t be improved by a railing. Solar powered cow fences like the one below are pretty common. Now I’ve seen everything.
Some fences are a little more old school. I like how they wrote “please close the door” in Sharpie (in German) on the gate post.
Whatever you do, be careful, when taking pictures. Don’t back up into one of these bad boys or you are in for a nasty shock. Take my word for it.
You see some good old-fashioned American-style barbed wire too. It’s not good to back up into either. You’d think I’d learn, but with views like these, it’s easy to be distracted.
The turnstiles are pretty cool, kind of like getting on the subway. You see, in Switzerland, they take their cows pretty seriously. If you have tasted their dairy, you know why. In fact, it was just in the news last week that dairy farmers in Switzerland are field-testing a new device that allows cows to send texts to show they are, um, feeling frisky. Yep. You read that correctly. Some Swiss cows are have sensors that gauge their readiness to mate and sends their owner a text message when they’re in heat.
In the 1662 the English scientist and physician Christopher Merret described how adding sugar to a finished wine created a second fermentation in a paper presented Royal Society. Not surprisingly, when I visited Champagne, they didn’t mention English contributions to the local brew. Here’s how they told it…
Once upon a time, the French Benedictine monk named Dom Pérignon discovered the secret of putting bubbles into wine, inventing Champagne. Although he didn’t, the French Benedictine monk made important contributions to Champagne’s production. In Champagne, the art of mixing the produce of different vineyards to achieve the perfect blend is of the utmost importance. Ol’ Dom was the first to do this.
In the 19th century, Champagne was sweeter; they added sugar helped disguise flaws and/or poor quality. In 1846, Perrier-Jouët decided not to sweeten his Champagne and it was a hit. Modern Champagne had arrived. Just how do they get the bubbles inside? The “champagne method.” Many other sparkling wines, including Prosecco, use other methods of putting the bubbles in. There is just something special about champagne and it might have something to do with this process.
Like regular wine, champagne starts out with crushed, fermented grapes. In Champagne, they use grapes from different vineyards to produce a neutral, acidic wine. Strong flavor would interfere with the development and final flavor. The acidity is needed for the second fermentation and extended aging. Who knew chemistry could be so tasty?
After the initial fermentation, they add a wine and sugar mixture known as “liqueur de triage” to base wine (which is known as the cuvée) before a second fermentation. They cap it up for the secondary fermentation; this extra fermentation naturally produces the bubbles. Carbon dioxide (aka bubbles) is a byproduct.
Bottles are stored on riding racks, which turn them almost upside down so residue settles in the bottles neck. Even though it’s not in the neck, you can see what the residue (known as lees) looks likes in the picture above.
Bottles are marked with lines so that they can be turned regularly. They are turned incrementally to avoid disrupting the champagne in the bottle. I saw Magnums wrapped in plastic to prevent their breaking and shattering surrounding bottles. Apparently, an exploding bottle of champagne has a dangerous amount of force. You wouldn’t want the entire stockpile below to be damaged, would you?
After 15 months, the bottle necks are quick-frozen, freezing the residue in the neck. When they remove the cap, the frozen sediment shoots out. This process is known as disgorgement.
Before re-corking the bottles, a measured amount of champagne and cane sugar is be added to the finished wine (known as the “liqueur d’expedition”). This mixture (known as “dosage”) determines the sweetness and style of the champagne. The bottles are then sealed with a special sparkling cork with a wire muse let cage (seen in the top photo above). When I heard champagne producers get the best cork in the world, I examined one. It does look a little denser and less fragile than your average wine cork. The cage ensures the roughly six atmospheres of pressure don’t force the cork off.
While I’ve mentioned adding mixtures at a couple of points, I haven’t fully detailed its importance. Champagne is known for blending and it is part of what sets this region apart (Bordeaux is also known for blending). There, master benders are revered. It takes tons of knowledge and balls of steel to hold back stock, mix multiple vintages and blend it in with newer vintages. Cheers!
- I Got A Kick From Champagne (schwingeninswitzerland.wordpress.com)
While in Bad Kreuznach, Germany we saw giant structures on the side of the road. They were 9 meters (27 feet) high and looked almost like walls. We wondered whether they were for flooding, remnants of ramparts or used for something else. It turns out that they are Saline graduation towers, structures used to produce salt by removing water from Saline solution via evaporation.
The towers are made from a wooden wall-like frame stuffed with bundles of brushwood (typically blackthorn). The Nahe valley has many salt springs. Salt water from them runs down the tower and partly evaporates, leaving minerals behind on the twigs. The water in the bottom has a higher salt content (as a result of the evaporation).
We’d never seen these before, but apparently they are in spa towns in Germany, Poland and Austria. Our friends told us that the air around them is beneficial and people with lung problems flock to them like they do to the seaside. The salt water (for both inhalation and bathing) remains a remedy for rheumatic diseases, asthma and skin conditions.
Of course, we had to check them out. We hiked through the Salinental valley from Bad Kreuznach to Bad Münster to see them. They were pretty sweet. You almost got a high from breathing in the air. It had a salty, tangy, fresh smell, kind of like the ocean without any fishy odors. The area around the towers felt cool and it was very refreshing.
The Kurpark gardens are billed as Europe’s largest open-air inhalatorium, they offer private salt rooms and spas on site. saline nebulizer, the thermal baths and a number of rehabilitation clinics. Saline nebulizers spray a fine salt mist into the surrounding area. The saltwater droplets are then breathed deep into the bronchial tubes.
We walked along the water to adjacent Bad Munster. Although there isn’t a ton besides campers and more spas in Bad Munster, it was beautiful. It was so beautiful that Turner even painted it. In 1844 while exploring the smaller valleys of the Rhine, he painted the castle of Ebernburg from the Valley of the Alsenz (click here to see the painting or go see it at the Tate in London).
- Weingut Otto Laubsenstein (schwingeninswitzerland.wordpress.com)