I love dogs, but I especially love big dogs. The St. Bernard (also known as St. Barnhardshund, Alpine Mastiff and Bernhardiner) is one of the world’s largest. They range from 25.5-27.5 inches ( 61-70 cm) and weigh 110-200 pounds (50-91 kg). The are most likely a cross between Tibetan Mastiffs with Great Danes, Greater Swiss Mountain Dog and Great Pyrenees. Initially, they had short hair; long hair coats collect icicles.
Augustinian Monks living in the treacherous St. Bernard Pass (the western route through the alps between Italy and Switzerland) bread the dogs. 8,000 feet above sea level, the pass is 49-miles long and is notorious for its changeable weather and high winds.
The St. Bernard pass was well travelled before St. Bernard de Menthon founded the famous hospice in the Swiss Alps as a refuge for travelers crossing the treacherous passes between Switzerland and Italy around 1050. There are even remains of a Roman road there. If you were a pilgrim headed to Rome, this is a likely route you would have taken. You wouldn’t have been the only one. Napoleon famously used the pass to cross the alps to invade Italy in 1800.
In the 17th century, St. Bernards were used to rescue people from avalanches and other dangers in snowy alpine passes. Saint Bernards have many features that make them well adapted to this task. They can smell a person under many feet of snow. They can hear low-frequency sounds humans cannot, possibly alerting people to avalanches. Their broad chests helped clear paths through the snow. Their large paws helped spread out the weight and worked like snowshoes to keep them on top of the snow. Their large paws helped them dig through the snow. Upon finding someone, they lie on top them to provide warmth.
The most famous rescuer was Barry (1800-1812). He is credited with saving the lives of more than 40 people. Today, Foundation Barry (named after the famous pooch) works to educate people about and preserve the breed. They also do alpine hikes with the pups! Both Foundation Barry and the St. Bernard Museum are located in in Martingy, a village down the mountain from the pass. Both have the adorable pups on site.